Posts by Category: Reactions

Classical Aldol Reaction

Classical Aldol Reaction

General Characteristics -In aldol reactions, the enol or the enolate of a ketone attacks an aldehyde or another ketone to generate a β-hydroxyketone (“aldol”). In the most classical procedure, the ...

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Appel Reaction

Appel Reaction

General Characteristics The Appel reaction converts primary and secondary alcohols into corresponding alkyl halides. The reaction is suitable for both acid- and base-sensitive alcohols since the ...

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TEMPO Oxidation

TEMPO Oxidation

General Characteristics 2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO) is a stable and commercially available organic free radical reagent used to oxidize primary alcohols to aldehydes. It is ...

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Brown Hydroboration

Brown Hydroboration

General Characteristics -Alkenes can be converted into anti-Markovnikov alcohols by the Brown hydroboration, which involves regio/stereoselective syn-addition of a B-H bond to the olefin followed by ...

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Carbamate Protective Groups

Carbamate Protective Groups

General Characteristics In order to tame the basicity and the high reactivity of amines during multi-step synthesis, it is common to protect them with electron-withdrawing functional groups. ...

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Acetal Protective Groups

Acetal Protective Groups

General Characteristics Alcohols can be protected as acetals against reductive and basic conditions. Oxygen-based acetals are also stable under oxidizing conditions. Deprotection is usually done ...

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Olefin Metathesis

Olefin Metathesis

General Characteristics In the presence of a metal alkylidene catalyst, two olefins combine and redistribute their fragments to give a new pair of olefins. Olefin metathesis is fundamentally an ...

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Ether Protective Groups

Ether Protective Groups

General Characteristics Ethers are stable under a wide range of conditions and relatively robust protecting groups. Methyl (Me) and trityl (Tr) groups are commonly used along with benzyl (Bn), ...

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Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) Reaction

Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) Reaction

General Characteristics -The reaction between a phosphonate ylide and an aldehyde, which proceeds via mechanistic path similar to the Wittig reaction to give an α,β-unsaturated ester. -The ...

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